Introduction to the Process of Lathe Mechanical Processing

Turning, as a common metal cutting process, is widely used in the field of machinery manufacturing. It is mainly used for processing rotationally symmetrical metal parts, such as shafts, gears, threads, etc. The turning process is complicated, but through reasonable design and operation, the fine production of metal parts can be realized. This article will give you a detailed analysis of the turning process.

Lathe machining materials:

The materials usually processed by lathes are easy to cut steel and copper, which contain high levels of sulfur and phosphorus. Sulfur and manganese exist in the form of manganese sulfide in steel, while manganese sulfide is commonly used in modern lathe processing. Aluminum alloy materials have a significantly lower density compared to iron and steel materials, and the difficulty of lathe processing is low, the plasticity is strong, and the weight of the product is greatly reduced. This also greatly shortens the time for lathe processing parts, and the cost reduction makes aluminum alloy the darling of the aviation parts field.

Lathe machining process:

1. Process preparation.

Before turning, process preparation needs to be carried out first. It mainly includes the following aspects:

(1) Determine the blank allowance, drawings and technical requirements of the processed parts, and understand the size, shape, material and other information of the parts.

(2) Select appropriate cutting tools, measuring tools and fixtures to ensure the cutting performance and durability of the cutting tools.

(3) Determine the processing sequence and tool path to reduce processing time and improve processing quality.

2. Clamp the workpiece: Clamp the workpiece to be processed on the lathe, ensuring that the axis of the workpiece coincides with the axis of the lathe spindle, and the clamping force is appropriate. When clamping, pay attention to the balance of the workpiece to prevent vibration during processing.

3. Adjust the tool: According to the size and material of the processed parts, adjust the cutting parameters of the tool, such as the tool extension length, tool tip angle, tool speed, etc. At the same time, ensure the sharpness of the tool to improve the processing quality.

4. Turning processing. Turning processing mainly includes the following stages:

(1) Rough turning: Use a larger cutting depth and faster tool speed for preliminary processing to quickly remove the blank on the workpiece surface.

(2) Semi-finishing turning: Reduce the cutting depth, increase the tool speed, and make the workpiece surface reach the predetermined size and smoothness.

(3) Finish turning: further reduce the cutting depth, reduce the tool speed, and improve the dimensional accuracy and flatness of the workpiece.

(4) Polishing: Use smaller cutting depth and slower tool speed to further improve the smoothness of the workpiece surface.

5. Inspection and trimming: After the turning process is completed, the workpiece needs to be inspected to ensure that the processing quality meets the technical requirements. Inspection contents include size, shape, surface finish, etc. If defects exceeding the standard are found, they need to be repaired.

6. Parts unloading: The qualified parts are unloaded from the lathe for subsequent processing or finished product acceptance.

Characteristics of turning processing

1. High precision: Turning processing can achieve high-precision dimensional requirements by accurately controlling cutting parameters.

2. High efficiency: The cutting speed of the lathe is relatively high, which can greatly improve the processing efficiency.

3. Automation: With the development of technology, turning processing can realize automated production and improve production efficiency and product quality.

4. Wide application: turning is suitable for processing parts made of various materials, such as steel, cast iron, non-ferrous metals, etc.


Post time: May-24-2024